RSPP Office

The Head of the Prevention and Protection Service (RSPP) is a figure that has been introduced by D. Lgs. 19 September 1994 n. 626, transposition of various European directives concerning the improvement of safety and health on workplaces. This is the professional expert in Safety designated by employers to manage and coordinate the activities of the Prevention and Protection Service (SPP), or “all the people, systems and internal or external company instruments aimed at prevention and protection from occupational hazards for workers” (art. 2 paragraph l letter l) of D. Lgs. 81/2008 and subsequent amendments).

Art. 2 paragraph 1 letter f) of D. Lgs. 81/2008 defines the Head of the Prevention and Protection Service as a “person in possession of skills and job requirements (…omitted…) designated by the employer, to which he responds, to coordinate the service of prevention and protection from risks”. The employer can’t delegate the appointment of a RSPP, provided by art. 17 paragraph 1 letter b) of D. Lgs. 81/2008. The Head of the Prevention and Protection Service is working with the employer, the company doctor and the safety employee representative for the realization of the risk assessment document.
LABORAD srl is available for taking up the office of RSPP on companies, specifically for every ATECO division.

For more information ask the expert.


Microclimate measurements

Microclimatic comfort is essential in all workplaces and public places. To obtain good microclimatic conditions it is necessary that they are acceptable both from the point of view of the thermo-hygro-anemometric parameters that characterize the microclimate, and the levels of illumination and air quality.

A comfortable microclimate is what inspires in most people a feeling of satisfaction with the environment, identified with the term “hygrothermal well-being” or simply “comfort”. Microclimatic factors at the workplace, together with the intensity of physical activity and clothing, cause in humans a series of biological responses ranging from feelings of Hygrothermal well-being to feelings of discomfort, from a serious effort for thermoregulation (more or less pronounced sweating) to pathological syndromes (heat stress).

A microclimate problem, such as discomfort, arises from both the global perception of the human body and by localized annoying situations and can be essentially reduced to sensations of heat, cold, or excessive air flow or thermal shock.



LABORAD srl performs microclimate risk assessments to determine the comfort of employes or of those who stay in a specific environment according to current laws (D.Lgs. 81/08 and technical standards). Our technicians are equipped with microclimate control units with specific probes and software that allow to make an assessment of the specific microclimate for each work task considering the energy expense and the type of clothing. The evaluation of comfort of workers and microclimate at the workplace is done measuring the environmental and individual parameters and then analyzing thermal comfort indices that allow to quantify the microclimatic conditions of an environment according to the workers (hot/comfortable) and their possible thermal discomfort (PMV = Predicted Mean Vote and PPD = Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied).

Moreover, the analysis carried out by the microclimate control unit is able to provide the lines of intervention that allow to overcome any problems of microclimatic discomfort.

To complete the microclimate risk assessment, our technicians perform lightning measurements and controls of indoor air quality for chemical pollutants (asbestos, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, Radon) and microbiological ones (Legionella spp, molds, yeasts…), and provide solutions to achieve requirements for the workplace (D.Lgs. 81/08. Title II, Chapter I).



The measurement of the microclimate in the workplace begins to gain an important role in the Document of hazard evaluation for companies. For a global assessment of the hazards present in the offices of public administrations, businesses and private companies ISPESL guidelines are available (in italian):

In the other cases, when evaluating microclimatic hazards, it is of crucial importance to distinguish between environments in which there are specific thermoigrometric needs for production and those in which this does not apply.

For the analysis of microclimate there are:

  • moderate environments, with conditions similar to the optimum for the human body;
  • severely hot environments and severely cold environments, where specific and unavoidable productive needs determine the presence of high or low temperatures..

The vast majority of workplaces falls into the first category; in the second class fall environments in which is impossible to properly control microclimate, such as operation near ovens, refrigerated rooms but also operating rooms…

Anyway, in both classes of environments a serious evaluation of microclimatic hazard must be performed with proper instrumental measurements.


LABORAD srl’s technicians are equipped with a microclimatic unit made for the study, the measurement and the assessment of microclimate in the workplace.

The instrument is able to visualize and register at the same time the measurements of environmental microclimatic factors such as: Temperature with dry bulb, Temperature with wet bulb, Globothermometric temperature, Relative humidity, Airflow. The unit is also able to calculate directly the WBGT indexes for indoor and outdoor environments and to measure the vertical discomfort (drafts at floor level, vertical thermal gradients) and radiant asymmetries.

The specific software allows to do an analysis of the recorded microclimatic parameters allowing to simulate their variation and instantly verify the effect of the variation on comfort perception and thermal comfort indexes.


Thermal comfort is defined by ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers INC) as a condition of psico-physical wellbeing of the individuals in the environment in which they live and work.

The evaluation of this state can be quantified using integrated indices that consider both environmental microclimatic parameters (Ta, Tr, Va, RH), and the energetic cost (metabolic cost MET) of the work activities, and also the type of clothing (thermal insulation CLO) commonly used.

Among the indices, the one that identifies the influence of physical and physiological variables on thermal comfort is the PMV (Predicted Mean Vote). It derives from the equation of thermal balance, whose result is rapported to a scale of psychophisical wellbeing and expresses the mean vote of the thermal feelings of a sample of individuals in the same environment.

From PMV derives a second index, named PPD (Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied) that quantifies the percentage of “not satisfied” individuals about specific microclimatic conditions.

The technical standard UNI EN ISO 7730:2006 suggests for a condition of thermal comfort PMV values between + 0,5 and – 0,5, corresponding to a PPD under 10%.






Very hot






Mildly hot

-0,5< PMV <+0,5

< 10

Thermal wellbeing



Mildly cold






Very cold

PMV index is particularly good to evaluate workplaces with a moderate microclimate, such as homes, schools, offices, research laboratories, hospitals, etc.; it is useful also to identify mild levels of discomfort in those environments.


D. Lgs. n.81 of 09/04/2008 (annex IV point 1.9 Microclimate): Implementation of article 1 of law 3 august 2007, n. 123, regarding health and safety in the workplaces.

Technical Standard

– UNI EN ISO 7730:2006
Ergonomics of the thermal environment – Analytical determination and interpretation of thermal comfort using calculation of PMV and PPD indices and criteria for thermal comfort.

– UNI EN 27243:1996
Hot environments. Evaluation of heat stress to humans in the workplace, based on the WBGT index (wet bulb and globe thermometer).

– UNI EN ISO 7933:2005
Ergonomics of the thermal environment – Analytical determination and interpretation of heat stress using calculation of the predicted heat strain

– UNI EN ISO 8996:2005
Ergonomics of the thermal environment – Determination of energetic metabolism

– UNI EN ISO 7726:2002
Ergonomics of the thermal environment – Instruments for measuring physical quantities.

– UNI EN ISO 11079:2008
Ergonomics of the thermal environment – Determination and interpretation of thermal stress from cold with the use of thermal insulation required clothing insulation (IREQ) and local cooling effects.

Guidelines (in italian)

•  Microclima, aerazione e illuminazione nei luoghi di lavoro. Requisiti e standard. Indicazioni operative e progettuali.

•  Linee guida microclima qualità dell’aria e inquinanti indoor_Linee guida min sanità

electromagnetic pollution

Electromagnetic pollution

Electromagnetic smog in the workplace is an insidious form of pollution because it is not clearly perceived by people who may therefore find themselves exposed to high levels of radiation without realizing it. Computers, monitors, processors, external drives, UPSs, wireless systems all contribute to increase the level of electromagnetic pollution in offices, especially where technology is essential. Therefore, sanitary agencies are often doing controls to verify that workers’ health isn’t in danger. Knowing the duration and the intensity of exposure to electromagnetic pollution allows to determine its harmfulness and take precautions. LABORAD srl issues appraisals for workplaces and explains possible solutions to the problem.

For a free evaluation on electromagnetic fields hazard, you can contact one of our technicians in the section: Ask the expert.



Electrosmog, or electromagnetic pollution, is the result of the presence of electronic equipment or electric cables emitting electric, magnetic and electromagnetic waves.

Electromagnetic fields are generated by every electric device or conductor: electric power lines, cordless phones, microwave ovens, computers, UPSs, antennas.

Pollution sources that produce electromagnetic fields are divided in two categories:

  • low frequency sources (< 100 kHz) that comprise all devices of electric energy transmission at industrial frequency and all electric devices;
  • high frequency sources (100 kHz -3 GHz) that comprise radio, tv and phone towers.


Numerous activities at the workplace can lead to exposure to electromagnetic fields at levels higher than those found in other environments. Among the main sources of electromagnetic pollution are distinguished:

  • static electric and magnetic fields (equipment powered by DC voltage, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance)
  • ELF electric and magnetic fields (extremely low frequency radiations, i.e. 50 Hz for the transport and the use of electric energy)
  • radiofrequency industrial heaters and microwaves (wood, textile and electronic industry…)
  • biomedical equipment (magnetotherapy, medical diathermy, electrocautery, tomography, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance…)
  • telecommunications equipment
  • magnetic gates and anti-theft systems
  • radiofrequency identification systems (labels, transponders).


All sources of electromagnetic fields can have direct health effects but also indirect ones. The latter are associated with the ability of an electric apparatus to generate electromagnetic disturbances in another that can create health problems on particular categories of workers or problems of safety at work.

In view of safety in the workplace and life, the presence of electromagnetic fields is particularly important in three areas:
• the effects of biomedical implants (i.e. pacemakers, metal implants, …)
• the effects of electronic devices responsible for signaling alarm for high-risk events and, in general, the management of potential accidents in industrial processes (safety equipment)

• the safety of diagnostic or therapeutic apparatus that must properly function for the quality of performance, quality that in some cases may play a critical role (i.e. life support equipment).

These effects can occur even at exposure values below the action levels fixed for workers. Therefore, especially in these areas, measurements of electromagnetic pollution (electrosmog measures) are fundamental and also, when necessary, shielding.



D. Lgs. 81/08 at title VIII chapter IV, clearly states the employer’s duties in hazard assessment. According to the degree, in case of uncertainty on whether exposures to electrosmogs are irrelevant, the employer assesses and, if needed, measures the electromagnetic fields the workers are exposed to.


Guidelines (in italian)

Decreto Legislativo 81/2008, Titolo VIII, Capo I, II, III e IV sulla prevenzione e protezione dai rischi dovuti all’esposizione ad agenti fisici nei luoghi di lavoro. 

radon measures underground

Radon measurements

As in Europe, in Italy there are laws about protection of health for the detection and measurement of Radon that may be present in environments frequented by people.

The legislation introduced by D.Lgs. 241 of 2000 requires that, by February 28, 2004, all businesses must assess the presence of ionizing radiation from natural background in the workplace. The threshold for exposure to Radon in the workplace has been fixed in 500 Bequerel per cubic meter. The obligation of measurement must be completed within two years after entry into force of this decree for the activities already in operation, while for the activities not yet started, a preliminary assessment is needed. This means that buying or renting a space, it should be taken into account the possible presence of natural radioactivity, especially in the case of a basement or underground, or if located in an area “rich” of natural radiation. The operator that, by March 1, 2004, is not in accordance to the obligations under the D.Lgs. 241/00, shall be punished by imprisonment up to three months or a fine of from 2,582 to 10,329 Euros.

The reference limits of Radon in the workplace is:

  • 500 Bq/ m3 threshold value only in the workplace (D.L. 241/2000).

Exceeded this value is necessary to act for reclamation by the intervention of a qualified expert in radiation protection.


LABORAD srl is an organization suitably equipped to perform measurements of Radon gas, as provided by paragraph 4 of Article 10-ter of D. Lgs. 230/95 and subsequent amendments, as it participates in an international intercomparison of procedures that define the quality and reliability of the proposed service.
The intercomparison results attest to the excellent quality of our results.


 BfS Radon comparison Certificate.pdf




  • basements or underground workplaces involving exposure to Radon or Toron decay products (tunnels, caves, subways, catacombs, deposits, but also various offices, warehouses, schools, banks, museums, libraries, shopping centers, etc.);

  • workplaces other than those mentioned above, but located in areas at high risk of contamination by Radon (identified by Regions and Autonomous Provinces by August 31, 2005). From this date the operators of the areas above identified will have 24 months to carry out the surveys;

  • workplaces used for the use or storage of non radioactive materials containing natural radioactive elements. For example, companies that process zircon sands, rare earths, ceramics industries, production of refractory materials, etc…;

  • workplaces used for the production of non radioactive waste, but which contain natural radioactive elements;

  • workplaces associated with thermal or mining activities;
  • aircraft (flight personnel with particular reference to the traveling part).

Ask the expert for a free evaluation.




For further details it is possible to download texts of the main law references.


Laborad srl is not responsible for the contents and the legal advice provided directly or indirectly by this website. The information and excerpts from the laws published here come from public records and not necessarily the official bodies.

Laborad srl can not therefore guarantee the accuracy, correctness and completeness of the information published. The purpose of this archive is only to promote information and stimulate discussion on current topics related to environmental safety.
The information provided below should therefore not be seen as legal advice!


We therefore invite readers to not rely or act upon the information provided here without the support of a professional counselor.
We apologize in advance for any mistakes or omissions and we will be happy to correct, supplement or remove all or part of the texts published here as a result of feedback from readers.


geotechnical surveys

Geotechnical and geognostic surveys for companies

The goal of geotechnical surveys is to:

  • identify the nature and the stratigraphy of lands and rocks constituting the underground;

  • determine the regime of underground water;

  • identify the properties of various soils in the underground:

 –     physical (grain size assortment, porosity, water content, weight per unit of volume, etc.);

 –     mechanical (compressibility, deformability, resistance to breakage, etc.);

      hydraulic (permeability).

LABORAD srl performs Menard pressurement tests (MPM) for the in situ identification of the mechanical characteristics of soils and rocks. To this end, in a geotechnical laboratory certified according to state law 7618/STC:

– Dynamic Penetrometric tests (DPM) for the reconstruction, stratigraphic interpolation and definition of the main geotechnical parameters even in difficult access sites.

– Load tests on plate for the determination of compressibility modules and the compaction property.

– Density test in situ on granular and cohesive soils to verify the compaction procedures.
– Inclinometer measurements for assessing the gravity movement of slopes and hills.

Seismic prospections

The seismic prospections are geophysical analysis methods based on the study of artificially generated seismic waves propagation. They depend on the elastic properties of the soils: the principles of this metodology are based on elasticity theory.

Our services comprise:

– Surface seismic prospections of MASW (Multichannel Analisys of Surface Waves) and REMI (Refraction Microtremors) types to determine the Vs30 for NTC for building on seismic territories.

– Downhole and crosshole seismic prospections to determine the speed of P and S waves, toreconstruct the seismostratigraphy and to determine the Vs30.
– Rifraction seismic prospections in P and S waves to determine the geometry and the elastomechanical characteristics in the assayed land sections.

– Electric tomography (ERT) and Vertical Electric Assays (SEV) for the knowledge of the local stratigraphy, searching for manufacts, artificial and natural caves and to reveal water sources.



Planning, executing and technical management of geognostic surveys for the stratigraphic study even at great depht and to determine the main mechanical characteristics of the investigated soils to support the design and construction of engineering works.

earth gases

Underground gases (carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide)

Several places on Earth are characterized by massive emissions, chronic or paroxysmal, of underground gases. Sometimes these emissions are limited and easily identifiable, as in the case of sulphur emissions and smokers, whose activity is mainly an emission of steam and sulphurous gas.
In other cases, emissions are dispersed in a wide portion of land, are often not perceptible and hardly identifiable without proper equipment. Protection from this last kind of emissions is of crucial importance, as they act in a subtle way and are usually unexpected. Composition of the gas mixture realeased in the atmosphere is often variable, but is generally constituted by some main gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) hydrogen sulfide (H2S), Helium (He) and Radon (Rn).


Our staff can take care of the assessment of the concentration of radon gas, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide and can verify the presence of radioactivity in households, releasing a certification with the result of the analysis.

For informations and for a free evaluation, ask an expert.

noise protection


Noise pollution is one of the most diffused forms of pollution, not only in the workplaces but, unfortunately, even at home.
Only in recent years an awareness of the risks that an excessive exposure to noise can generate (or a more limited exposure but to higher levels of noise).
Car traffic, planes, recreational activities or work can cause raising in noise levels even in our homes.
Noise has serveral effects on health, but generally they can cause:
• Hearing damages
• Alterations of heartbeat
• Alterations of blood pressure
• Function alteration of central and autonomic nervous system
• Digestive system alterations

LABORAD srl issues certifications for workplaces (D. Lgs. 81/08, title VIII , Chapter II) and residential environments and releases acoustic zoning planes for public administrations and preliminar evaluation of work sites.

For a personalized evaluation of noise hazard you can contact one of our experts at the section: Ask the expert.



Oun experts do complete evaluations of noise hazard by complete phonometric analysis conducted as per Security Laws D. Lgs. 81/08, title VIII, chapter II (ex D.Lgs 10 april 2006 n. 195).

Noise evaluation comprises:

– evaluation of noise levels, type and duration of exposure (phonometry, measures and noise analysis)

– evaluation of hearing protection devices with correct attenuation properties (noise evaluation);

– measuring (phonometry) of all work stations used by workers with characterization, for each station measured, of equivalent noise level LEX calculated over a 8-hours-long work day or over a week (noise analysis and effects evaluation)

Our experts are also available for:

• Designing and realization of territory acoustic classifications, according to indices established by law.

•  Collaboration with public administrations to define plans of acoustic reclamation.

•  Reclamations and soundproofing.

• Supplying noise absorbing, insulating and anti reverberation materials for protection from noise, following proper evaluation and noise analysis of its principal tone components (evaluation of noise risk and risk assessment document).


Measures of noise (phonometry) are performed using phonometers that allow to measure noise intensity in dB and frequency bands levels, analysed in octaves or fractions.
Evaluation of noise hazard should allow to:
– identify sources of noise and/or the activity against which technical measures must be applied, identifying the best interventions;
– identify the workplaces and the workers that should be object of specific protocols of interventions for protection from noise effects
– assess the “residual” noise hazard that determine the choici of proper acoustic Personal Protection Devices (DPI).

Guidance on the technical characteristics of phonometric devices and measuring protocols are established in D.M. 16/03/1998, that implements Legge Quadro 447/95. These protocols are essential to guarantee a proper measurement and, more importantly, their correct interpretation for legal purposes.


For further information and for a free evaluation, ask the expert.



The obligation for employers to assess risks and to implement proper prevention, protection and sanitary surveillance measures, established by D. Lgs. 81/2008 and subsequent amendments, is valide also for the professional exposure to vibrations.

In the following tables (in italian) there is an incomplete list of some machines and devices whose regular use can cause a significant risk for the exposure to vibrations transmitted to the hand-arm system and operator’s whole body.


Risk assessment can be performed through vibrometries for the verification of exposure levels.

For further information and for a free evaluation, ask the expert.

Plant designing

Plant designing

The application of the regulations governing workplace safety, environmental respect, risk prevention and adaptation to the same standards of production structures, requires specific skills in analysis and design.

Both the costs of the remediations and the quality levels of the work and, as a result, the productive result of the company, depend on the professionalism and the accuracy of the project.

LABORAD srl offers a team of experts specialized in management and reduction of risks linked to productive activities, thus ensuring continuity in time and quality of services.
In particular we are specialized in the field of workplace safety, environmental protection, prevention of chemical, physical and biological hazards and remediation of living and working environments.
The same experts are also available for training courses and informations on key issues of corporate security.

atmosphere pollution air greenhouse gases

Emissions to the atmosphere

D. 152 of 03/04/2006 Part V (prevention and limitation of emissions into the atmosphere by plants and activities) applies to installations, including civil heating plants and activities that produce emissions to the atmosphere.

Companies are required to:
– request an authorization for new installations and for modifications of existing plants pursuant to art. 269 and Art. 275 with ordinary procedure
– communicate minor changes pursuant to art. 269 paragraph 8
– communicate the change of name


The Companies are entitled to:
– communicate the presence of facilities/activities that generate low air pollution pursuant to art. 272 paragraph 1
– adhere to the authorization of a general character issued by the Province for specific categories of facilities/activities pursuant to art. 272 paragraph 2

Authorizations are valid for 15 years.
The RENEWAL application for plants licensed under the ordinary procedure must be submitted at least one year before expiration.

LABORAD srl provides companies with its technicians to conduct the practice of licensing or renewal at the Province.

For more information or a free estimate, ask the expert.